Case Study

Case study This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (January 2012) This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (January 2012) case study is a report about a person, group, or situation that has been studied. [1] If the case study, for instance, is about a group, it describes the behavior of the group as a whole, not the behavior of each individual in the group. Case studies can be produced by following a formal research method. These case studies are likely to appear in formal research venues, as journals and professional conferences, rather than popular works. The resulting body of 'case study research' has long had a prominent place in many disciplines and professions, ranging from psychology, anthropology, sociology, and political science to education, clinical science, social work, and administrative science. In doing case study research, the "case" being studied may be an individual, organization, event, or action, existing in a specific time and place. For instance, clinical science has produced both well-known case studies of individuals and also case studies of clinical practices. [6] However, when "case" is used in an abstract sense, as in a claim, a proposition, or an argument, such a case can be the subject of many research methods, not just case study research. Case studies may involve both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Case studies in research may be mistaken for the case method used in teaching. Contents Case selection and structure[edit] An average, or typical case, is often not the richest in information. In clarifying lines of history and causation it is more useful to select subjects that offer an interesting, unusual or particularly revealing set of circumstances. [ citation needed] A case selection that is based on representativeness will seldom be able to produce these kinds of insights. When selecting a subject for a case study, researchers will therefore use information-oriented sampling, as opposed to random sampling. Outlier cases (that is, those which are extreme, deviant or atypical) reveal more information than the potentially representative case. [ citation needed] Alternatively, a case may be selected as a key case, chosen because of the inherent interest of the case or the circumstances surrounding it. Alternatively it may be chosen because of a researchers' in-depth local knowledge; where researchers have this local knowledge they are in a position to "soak and poke" as Fenno [7] puts it, and thereby to offer reasoned lines of explanation based on this rich knowledge of setting and circumstances. Four types of cases may thus be distinguished for selection: Key cases Comparative case studies. Whatever the frame of reference for the choice of the subject of the case study (key, outlier, local knowledge), there is a distinction to be made between the subjestorical unity [ page needed] through which the theoretical focus of the study is being viewed. The object is that theoretical focus – the analytical frame. Thus, for example, if a researcher were interested in US resistance to communist expansion as a theoretical focus, then the Korean War might be taken to be the subject, the lens, the case study through which the theoretical focus, the object, could be viewed and explicated. Beyond decisions about case selection and the subject and object of the study, decisions need to be made about purpose, approach and process in the case study. Thomas [10] thus proposes a typology for the case study wherein purposes are first identified (evaluative or exploratory), then approaches are delineated (theory-testing, theory-building or illustrative), then processes are decided upon, with a principal choice being between whether the study is to be single or multiple, and choices also about whether the study is to be retrospective, snapshot or diachronic, and whether it is nested, parallel or sequential. It is thus possible to take many routes through this typology, with, for example, an exploratory, theory-building, multiple, nested study, or an evaluative, theory-testing, single, retrospective study. The typology thus offers many permutations for case-study structure. A closely related study in medicine is the case report, which identifies a specific case as treated and/or examined by the authors as presented in a novel form. These are, to a differentiable degree, similar to the case study in that many contain reviews of the relevant literature of the topic discussed in the thorough examination of an array of cases published to fit the criterion of the report being presented. These case reports can be thought of as brief case studies with a principal discussion of the new, presented case at hand that presents a novel interest. Types of case studies[edit] This section needs expansion. (June 2016) Grounded. Under the more generalized category of case study exist several subdivisions, each of which is custom selected for use depending upon the goals and/or objectives of the investigator. These types of case study include the following: Illustrative case studies. These are primarily descriptive studies. They typically utilize one or two instances of an event to show the existing situation. Illustrative case studies serve primarily to make the unfamiliar familiar and to give readers a common language about the topic in question. Exploratory (or pilot) case studies. These are condensed case studies performed before implementing a large scale investigation. Their basic function is to help identify questions and select types of measurement prior to the main investigation. The primary pitfall of this type of study is that initial findings may seem convincing enough to be released prematurely as conclusions. Cumulative case studies. These serve to aggregate information from several sites collected at different times. The idea behind these studies is the collection of past studies will allow for greater generalization without additional cost or time being expended on new, possibly repetitive studies. Critical instance case studies. These examine one or more sites for either the purpose of examining a situation of unique interest with little to no interest in generalization, or to call into question or challenge a highly generalized or universal assertion. This method is useful for answering cause and effect questions. Generalizing from case studies[edit] A critical case is defined as having strategic importance in relation to the general problem. A critical case allows the following type of generalization: "If it is valid for this case, it is valid for all (or many) cases." In its negative form, the generalization would run: "If it is not valid for this case, then it is not valid for any (or valid for only few) cases." The case study is effective for generalizing using the type of test that Karl Popper called falsification, which forms part of critical reflexivity. Falsification offers one of the most rigorous tests to which a scientific proposition can be subjected: if just one observation does not fit with the proposition it is considered not valid generally and must therefore be either revised or rejected. Popper himself used the now famous example: "All swans are white", and proposed that just one observation of a single black swan would falsify this proposition and in this way have general significance and stimulate further investigations and theory-building. The case study is well suited for identifying "black swans" because of its in-depth approach: what appears to be "white" often turns out on closer examination to be "black". Galileo Galilei built his rejection of Aristotle's law of gravity on a case study selected by information-oriented sampling and not by random sampling. The rejection consisted primarily of a conceptual experiment and later on of a practical one. These experiments, with the benefit of hindsight, are self-evident. Nevertheless, Aristotle's incorrect view of gravity had dominated scientific inquiry for nearly two thousand years before it was falsified. In his experimental thinking, Galileo reasoned as follows: if two objects with the same weight are released from the same height at the same time, they will hit the ground simultaneously, having fallen at the same speed. If the two objects are then stuck together into one, this object will have double the weight and will according to the Aristotelian view therefore fall faster than the two individual objects. This conclusion seemed contradictory to Galileo. It is generally believed that the case-study method was first introduced into social science by Frederic Le Play in 1829 as a handmaiden to statistics in his studies of family budgets. Related uses[edit] Using case studies in research differs from their use in teaching, where they are commonly called case methods and casebook methods. Teaching case studies have been a highly popular pedagogical format in many fields ranging from business education to science education. Harvard Business School has possibly been a developer and user of teaching case studies. [20] Business school faculty generally develop case studies with particular learning objectives in mind. Additional relevant documentation, such as financial statements, time-lines, and short biographies, often referred to in the case study as exhibits, and multimedia supplements (such as video-recordings of interviews with the case subject) often accompany the case studies. Similarly, teaching case studies have become increasingly popular in science education. The National Center for Case Studies in Teaching Science [21] has made a growing body of case studies available for classroom use, for university as well as secondary school coursework. [22] Nevertheless, the principles in doing case study research contrast with those in doing case studies for teaching. Teaching case studies need not adhere strictly to the use of evidence, as they can be manipulated to satisfy educational needs. The generalizations from teaching case studies also may relate to pedagogical issues rather than the substance of the case being studied. Case studies are commonly used in case competitions and interviews for consulting firms such as McKinsey & Company, CEB Inc. and the Boston Consulting Group, in which candidates are asked to develop the best solution for a case in an allotted time frame. Further reading[edit] Rethinking Case Study Research. New York: Routledge. Baxter, P and Jack, S. (2008) "Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study design and implementation for novice researchers", in The Qualitative Report, 13(4): 544-559. Available from [1] Dul, J. and Hak, T. (2008) Case Study Methodology in Business Research. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-8196-4. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). "Building theories from case study research". The Academy of Management Review. 14 (4): 532–550. doi:10.2307/258557.  George, Alexander L. and Bennett, Andrew. (2005) Case studies and theory development in the social sciences. London: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-57222-2 Gerring, John. (2005) Case Study Research. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-67656-4 Kyburz-Graber, Regula (2004). "Does case-study methodology lack rigour? The need for quality criteria for sound case-study research, as illustrated by a recent case in secondary and higher education". Environmental Education Research. Mills, Albert J., Durepos, Gabrielle, and Wiebe, Elden. Eds. (2010) Encyclopedia of Case Study Research. (2 vols.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN 978-1-4129-5670-3 Ragin, Charles C. and Becker, Howard S. Eds. (1992) What is a Case? Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42188-8 Scholz, Roland W. and Tietje, Olaf. (2002) Embedded Case Study Methods. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Knowledge. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN 0-7619-1946-5 Straits, Bruce C. and Singleton, Royce A. (2004) Approaches to Social Research, 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514794-4. Available from: [2] Thomas, Gary. (2011) Yin, Robert. (2014) External links[edit]

Case Study Case Study
National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science (NCCSTS) http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/ The case study method of teaching applied to college science teaching, from The National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science Link Building Case Study: How I Increased My Search ... http://backlinko.com/skyscraper-technique Link Building Case Study: How I Increased My Search Traffic by 110% in 14 Days How Fake News Goes Viral: A Case Study - The New York Times https://www.nytimes.com/2016/11/20/business/media/how-fake-news-spreads.html Nov 20, 2016 · How a misinformed Twitter post the night after the presidential election fueled a nationwide conspiracy theory and became a talking point — even as it ... News glossary - Behind the Headlines - NHS Choices http://www.nhs.uk/news/Pages/Newsglossary.aspx Explanation of medical, scientific, and statistical terms used in Behind the headlines Case Study Houses https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Case_Study_Houses Case study - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Case_study A case study is a report about a person, group, or situation that has been studied. If the case study, for instance, is about a group, it describes the behavior of the group as a whole, not the behavior of each individual in the group. Case studies can be produced by following a formal research method. Benzodiazepine use and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: case ... http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g5205 Objectives To investigate the relation between the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and exposure to benzodiazepines started at least five years before, considering both ... Case Study: What Does a Real 4-Hour Workweek Look Like ... http://tim.blog/2013/02/01/case-study-what-does-a-real-4-hour-workweek-look-like-with-a-family/ Now that’s a happy kid. (Photos: Brandon Pearce) One common challenge for readers of The 4-Hour Workweek is the creation a “muse”: a low-maintenance business ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of heart ... http://www.bmj.com/content/354/bmj.i4857 Abstract. Objectives To investigate the cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and estimate the risk of hospital admission for heart ... Argentum - Expanding Senior Living https://www.argentum.org/ Argentum is the nation's largest senior living association. Argentum expands senior living through industry-leading events, publications, and education. How to Write a Case Study: The Ultimate Guide & Template https://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/33282/the-ultimate-guide-to-creating-compelling-case-studies.aspx Feb 1, 2017 ... Uncover what you need to create effective case studies for your business -- case study template included. The Importance of Education to National Development – A ... http://articlesng.com/importance-education-national-development-case-study-nigeria/ The Importance of Education to National Development – A Case Study of Nigeria. Introduction The Importance of Education to National Development – Education is the ... F-Shaped Pattern For Reading Web Content https://www.nngroup.com/articles/f-shaped-pattern-reading-web-content/ Summary: Eyetracking visualizations show that users often read Web pages in an F-shaped pattern: two horizontal stripes followed by a vertical stripe. 8 Tips For Creating a Great Case Study - Kissmetrics Blog https://blog.kissmetrics.com/creating-a-great-case-study/ Case studies are a great way to tell the world how valuable your products or services are. They go beyond simple testimonials by showing real-life examples of ... Case Study Method in Psychology | Simply Psychology https://www.simplypsychology.org/case-study.html Case studies are in-depth investigations of a single person, group, event or community. Typically, data are gathered from a variety of sources and by using several different methods (e.g. observations amp interviews). What is a Case Study? | UNSW Current Students https://student.unsw.edu.au/what-case-study Jun 20, 2013 ... A case study is an account of an activity, event or problem that contains a real or hypothetical situation and includes the complexities you would ... Case Study Coffee https://www.casestudycoffee.com/ Roasting direct trade and seasonal coffees in Portland, Oregon. Case Study Research Design - How to conduct a Case Study https://explorable.com/case-study-research-design Pros and Cons with the Case Study Research Design. Case Studies | Stanford Graduate School of Business https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/faculty-research/case-studies View abstract and ordering information for case studies written and published by faculty at Stanford GSB. Case Studies - Creative Commons https://wiki.creativecommons.org/wiki/Case_Studies Mar 21, 2017 ... Whether you're looking for inspiration, business models, or precedents, the CC Case Studies are a perfect place to start. Help us expand this ...

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What is a case study? A case study is a research strategy, sometimes likened to an experiment, a history, or a...a rigid protocol to examine a limited number of variables, case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single instance or event...
how do you write a case study??? 5 Answers · Arts & Humanities · 06/02/2007
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what is a case study? 3 Answers · Education & Reference · 23/08/2007
what is a case study? A case study is one of several ways of doing research whether it is social... a rigid protocol to examine limited number of variables, case study methods involve an in-depth, longitudinal examination of a single instance or event...
What is Case Study? 2 Answers · Education & Reference · 27/09/2009
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