Hit Ing On Your Introduction - Introduction Writing Tutorial

Where did PGP come from and how does it work?   Where did PGP come from? Rarely does anything of significance arise out of the blue.  PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is the culmination of a long history of cryptographic discoveries.  Cryptography is the science of writing messages in secret codes.  It is nothing new.  Since the human race became a species of its own, we have pondered the challenge of concealing our communications from others.  Secrecy--stealth--is not a preserve of the human species.  It is a matter of survival for all our brothers, sisters and cousins in the animal world from which we have evolved.  Whether in times of peace or in times of war, we all harbor secret thoughts, feelings, desires, objectives, and so forth that we want to share only with those we absolutely trust, and that we want to carefully conceal from those who would take advantage of us if they knew what we had in mind. Encryption makes this possible, and one of the strongest encryption tools available to us today is PGP.     Phil Zimmermann invented PGP because he recognized that cryptography "is about the right to privacy, freedom of speech, freedom of political association, freedom of the press, freedom from unreasonable search and seizure, freedom to be left alone."  You can read Phil Zimmermann's fuller explanation as to why you need PGP.  In the development of PGP, Zimmermann was greatly assisted by his knowledge of the long history of cryptography.  Like Sir Isaac Newton, Zimmermann was able to achieve what he achieved because he "stood on the shoulders of giants" who went before him.     OK, here goes; put your thinking cap on...  If this gets overly technical for you, and your eyes start to glaze over, don't worry about it.  It's nice if you can understand what's going on with Public and Private Key encryption, but it's not necessary right away.  You'll understand it better as you start to use it and as you interact with others who use it and can explain what's going on.  For now, it's sufficient to just follow the sets of numbered steps carefully in order to learn the skills required to use PGP.  But read over what follows and understand it as best you can.   two keys to lock and unlock the secrets of your encoded information.  A key is a block or string of alphanumeric text (letters and numbers and other characters such as !, ?, or %) that is generated by PGP at your request using special encryption algorithms.   The first of the two keys you'll create is your Public Key, which you'll share with anyone you wish (the tutorial also will show you how you can put your Public Key on an international server so that even strangers could send you encrypted data if they wanted).  Your Public Key is used to encrypt--put into secret code--a message so that its meaning is concealed to everyone except you   Then there is your Private Key, which you'll jealously guard by not sharing with anyone.  The Private Key is used to decrypt--decode--the data (messages and so forth) that have been encrypted using your Public Key.  This means that  the message encrypted (encoded) using your Public Key can only be decrypted (decoded) by you, the owner of the corresponding Private Key. The designation of one of the two keys (Key1, say) as Public and the other (Key2) as Private is purely arbitrary since there is no functional difference between the two.  PGP chooses one to act as the Public Key and designates the other as the Private Key.  If it chooses to designate them in the other order (Public=Key2 and Private=Key1), it would make no difference. This is because when either key is used to encrypt something, the other will act as the corresponding decrypting key to convert the encrypted data back into its original form. This capability is at the heart of the " Signing" process mentioned in Public and Private Key encryption solves one of two major problems with older methods of encryption, namely that you had to somehow share the key with anyone you wanted to be able to read (decrypt) your secret message.  The very act of sharing the key meant that some untrustworthy so-and-so could intercept it--and frequently did.  Which meant your code was practically useless.   The second major problem with older methods of encryption was the relative ease with which the code could be broken.  Codes have to be incredibly complex if they're to foil the attempts of astute humans to crack them.  This is all the more the case today when we have increasingly powerful computers to do the dirty, "brute force," work of trying every conceivable combination of  key possibilities for us.  PGP, and other similar encryption systems, use a key that is really--well--astronomically large, meaning that the number of binary bits (1s and 0s) used to create it has an astronomically large number of possible combinations and the actual decimal (base 10) value they represent is--well--huge.  Unlike earlier encryption methods, the security of PGP encryption lies entirely with the key.  Earlier encryption methods relied on "security through obscurity" (ie: keeping secret  the method used to do the encryption).  The methods used to do PGP encryption are known and documented.  It is PGP's selection of the complex keys used to do an encryption that makes it next to impossible to crack.     The size of the key can be increased whenever necessary to stay one step ahead of advances in technology.  Time alone will tell if PGP can stand the test of time, but for now it's one of the best encryption technologies you'll find. If you would like to read the history of encryption and understand the origins of Zimmermann's PGP program, an excellent account is given in Simon Singh's CODE BOOK (Doubleday, New York, NY, 1999).  Find out more about PGP at the International PGP home page.  The CryptoRights Foundation is another good website for information regarding privacy issues.  You might also like to join the PGP-BASICS User group where you can find speedy and informed answers to questions that might arise as you get started using PGP.  Once you're more experienced with the program, you can join the PGP Users Mailing List so you can keep in touch with issues related to privacy.   Once the download is complete, you'll have the zipped version of the PGP program on your hard drive.  Now you have to unzip it.  For this, your best bet is to use the shareware WinZip which you'll need to have installed on your computer.  You may already have this program from when you had to install other software.  You can check if you have the WinZip program by simply double clicking on the file you just downloaded ( PGPFW703.zip).  If you don't have WinZip installed on your computer, or if you're in doubt, you can go get it (download it) from the web.  The best place to do this is at install the WinZip software on your computer.  With a program such as WinZip installed on your computer, you are now ready to unzip and install PGP.  Here are the steps to follow: Start by locating the PGP zip file PGPFW703.zip on your computer and double click on it to unzip it. In the WinZip window, double click on the file named PGPfreeware 7.0.3.exe.  You may have to wait a while until the PGP files have been extracted by the WinZip program. Next you'll be prompted to run the PGP freeware 7.0.3 installer. Follow the Installer's step-by-step directions, clicking on the Next button as you go along.  The first three screens contain info about PGP (licensing, etc.).  Read them before clicking on the Yes button or the Next button. Next you're asked if you already have a keyring you want to use.  If you do, click in the check box next to " Yes".  I you are a new user of  PGP, as is likely the case if you're working your way through this tutorial, click in the check box next to " No". Now you're asked to confirm the folder where you want the PGP Installer to install the program.  Unless you have other ideas, accept the default for this item. On each of the ensuing screens, read what the Installer has to say.  When asked, accept the defaults and let the Installer do all the setup for you.  [ Note to Screen Reader users:If you choose the custom install, then you will get a tree view that lists the components that are going to be installed.  Use the intermediate arrow keys to move through the list. You may have to specially label the checked and unchecked icons. Use the spacebar to check and uncheck each item.  After you have clicked next, you will be presented with a read only edit box that lists the components that you have selected.  Be sure to review this list before proceeding. This list is also very handy in case your screen reader does not recognize the checked and unchecked icons or, even if it does, it may not read them in tandem with the item as you arrow through the tree view.] Once the PGP software is installed, you will have to reboot your system.  PGP will prompt you to go ahead and Restart. After your system has been restarted, you have one final task to complete the installation of the PGP 7.0.3 and that is to unzip the PGP 7.0.3 HotFix 1 file.   [ Note to Screen Reader users:If you are using a screen reader, please ensure that from this point onwards, the configs for the various PGP programs have loaded. You will need separate configs for PGPkeys and PGPtray.]     Now that you have the PGP software installed on your computer, you need to create a Public and Private Key pair.  This you can do at any time.  Remember as you complete the steps that follow that your Public Key is so-called because you will willingly share it with others so that they can use it to send you secret information.  Your Private Key is so-called because it alone will decode any information encoded with your Public Key.  As long as you alone have knowledge of your Private Key, your privacy is assured.  Here are the steps to follow: [ Note to Screen Reader users:  Once you have started PGPkeys, you can go to the options dialog from the edit menu. Navigate to the hotkeys tab and assign hotkeys to whatever functions you want. These hotkeys allow you to have a single keystroke access to commonly used tasks like signing, encrypting, etc.  When reviewing the hotkey assigned to a task, use the command that reads the line at the insertion pointer. In Window Bridge 2000, this command is caps + intermediate up arrow.] Open PGPkeys by selecting Next. [ Note to Screen Reader users:The PGPkeys window consists of a tree list control.  It is advisable that you classify this control to its standard equivalent. Use the intermediate arrows to navigate among the various key pairs.  It may happen that your screen reader yields no speech as you navigate using the intermediate arrows.  If this is the case, you can then use the mouse.  If using Window Bridge 2000, use item pad. Other screen readers name this feature differently.  Also, enable the msaa identification for buttons, check boxes, radio buttons and combo boxes.  Enable, too, the identification of color.  In Window bridge 2000, this is the attribute sensor.] Now the PGP Key Generation Wizard asks you to indicate if you are an expert PGP user or not.  Since this tutorial is for beginners to PGP, we'll assume that you are not an expert, so click on the Next button to proceed to the next step. The PGP Key Generation Wizard now asks you to enter your name and e-mail address.  Do this now.  You can use any name you like, but it's a good idea to use a genuine e-mail address so you can take advantage of the PGP feature which will look up the correct key for you that goes with your Passphrase.  Click Next when you're done entering your name and e-mail address. The PGP Key Generation Wizard now asks you to enter a Passphrase.  Think about this before you proceed.  Choose a Passphrase that has at least eight (8) characters (that's a minimum of 8 characters as a requirement), with a mix of upper and lowercase letters or other characters.  Bear this in mind: the odder the mix of characters and the longer your Passphrase, the better.  As Herb Kanner explains, "The size of the Passphrase, and the inclusion of mixed case and non-alphabetics is to increase the difficulty of a brute force attack on your Passphrase."  So, if you use a longer, randomized Passphrase (Herb's is 15 characters long, and Bernie's is 33!!), even if someone used a supercomputer, it would take an intolerably long time for it to try all combinations till it hit on your Passphrase.  If you'd like to read more about this important subject of Passphrases, take a look at The Passphrase FAQ.  Arnold G. Reinhold's DiceWare Passphrase HomePage is another excellent resource which helps you decide on a good Passphrase. Once you've decided on your Passphrase, write it down if necessary so you don't forget it, then, as Steve Kinney recommends,  in large letters write on the note the word " DESTROY" or " BURN" to remind yourself to do this once you've used the new Passphrase often enough to know it by heart. Enter your Tab, and re-enter it for confirmation. Then click Next again.  Step 4 explains how to change your Passphrase, so if you change your mind about the Passphrase you just chose, it's not a problem to select a new one. If you have entered an inadequate Passphrase, the PGP Wizard will warn you and ask you to go back and re-enter another Passphrase.  But if all is well, the PGP Key Generation Wizard will now go ahead and generate your key pair.  You may be prompted to move your mouse around or hit random keys on the keyboard to help the Wizard create a more secure key.  Click Next when the Wizard has finished generating your key. In the last Wizard dialog box you're told how to send your new Public Key to a server where others around the globe can find it and use it when they want to encrypt data they wish to send you.  This is explained later in this tutorial (Step 6) so you don't need to worry about it for now.  Click on Finish. PGP Public and Private Keys.  Now all you have to do is share your Public Key with anyone with whom you wish to exchange secure information.  The next sections tell you how to do this, and how to use your key and those of your correspondents to encrypt and decrypt the data that you exchange.   Step 5: Distributing your Public Key When you want to exchange Public Keys with a particular individual or group of individuals with whom you intend to exchange encrypted information, the best way to do this is to send it as an e-mail to whoever you want to have it.  Read what follows carefully, however, so you understand how PGP works.     The recipient of your Public Key will have to have PGP installed on their own computer if they want to be able to add your Public Key to their keyring and use it to encrypt the data they want to send you.  Likewise, you must have anyone else's Public Key on your keyring in PGPKeys if you want to send them encrypted data.  This is a bit tricky to understand at first, but think about it.  Anyone who uses PGP has two keys, a Public Key and a Private Key.  Your Public Key is used by other people to encrypt information they want to send you so no one else but you can know what the information contains.  When you receive an encrypted message from someone (could be any kind of data, not just text), you use your Private Key to decrypt it.  The neat thing is that you're the only person who can decrypt the secret message because you're the only person who has the Private Key, with the Passphrase that unlocks it (unless you share your Passphrase and Private Key with someone else, which would defeat the purpose of PGP!).     If you want to, you can put your Public Key on one or more servers that form an international server chain.  Effectively, this makes your Public Key available to anyone anywhere who would like to exchange secure communications with you.  Step 5 below explains how to do this.   Step 6: Making your Public Key available through a certificate server It's a good idea eventually to place your Public Key(s) on what's called a public certificate server.  This is a server where anyone can access your Public Key and use it to send you encrypted messages.  You'll still be the only one who can decrypt the message because you alone have the Private Key, so you never need worry that your privacy will be compromised just because you made your Public Key public.  After all, that's why it's called a Public Key.  However, as a beginner to PGP, you may not want to do this right away, since you may well decide to change your Public Key at a later date for one reason or another.  The thing is that, once you put your Public Key on a certificate server, you can't remove it--ever, and there's no point littering the server with keys that are never going to be used.  So keep this section of the tutorial in mind for later, after you've got used to using the program and have settled into using a particular Public Key.     Here, then, are the simple steps to make your Public Key available through the certificate server at MIT.  It doesn't matter which server you post your Public Key to, by the way, since they are all interlinked.  Wherever you post your Public Key, it will be available worldwide. Start by connecting to the internet, so that PGP can access the web site (in our case a server at MIT) where your Public Key can be sent and included in the database of Public Keys. Open PGPkeys by selecting OK.  The decrypted message will come up in a new window for you to read.  If you wish to keep the decrypted version, you can copy it and paste it into a word processor of your choice before saving it to disk.  The decrypted message will look like the following (Note that the message is now readable and the signature has been verified): *** PGP Signature Status: good *** Signed: 06/30/2001 at 00:51 *** Verified: 06/30/2001 at 00:52 *** BEGIN PGP DECRYPTED/VERIFIED MESSAGE *** This is a sample of what the above Encrypted&Signed message looks like after it has been decrypted and the signature has been successfully verified. Since the Public Key that was used to encrypt this text belongs to Robert Rosenberg, only he can decrypt the message to extract this message. An Encrypted&Signed message is a Clear Signed Message (such as the sample in Step 10 below) prior to the Encrypt Stage and after the Decrypt Stage. While it is possible to just Encrypt a message, it is usual to also sign it to prove its origin.       That's all there is to it.  To find out about the many other features of the PGP program, check out the Manual that was originally downloaded with the software.  It's a .pdf file which will print out beautifully on your printer so you can read it at your leisure over a nice cup of tea :)  Well, maybe you'll need something a bit stiffer to help you figure it all out...  [ Note to Screen Reader users:To read the manual, you will need the Acrobat Reader accessibility plug in. You can download it from the Adobe web site or try sites like http://www.blindprogramming.com.I use Window Bridge 2000 as my screen reader.  Wherever possible, I have tried to be generic.  Where I have used Window Bridge terminology, I have done my best to explicitly state so.     On a technical note: The actual encryption/decryption is NOT being done with the Public/Private keys of your recipient(s) but with a special one-time key that is generated for use in this specific encrypt&sign operation.  Every time you do an encrypt&sign, a new one-time key is generated.  Unlike the Public/Private key pairs where anything encrypted with one key needs the other key to do the decrypt, these one-time keys have the ability to decrypt anything that they encrypt (hence its being known as a Symmetric Key).  When you encrypt any data, this one-time key is used to do the actual encryption.  The Public key of each recipient is then used to encrypt the one-time key and added to the encrypted text created with the one-time key.  Thus what results is a list of recipients with the one-time key supplied encrypted with each person's Public Key along with the common copy of the one-time key encrypted ciphertext.  This format allows a message to be sent to multiple people at the same time yet allow each to use his or her own Private Key to read it.  The decrypting process involves the recipient's PGP Program scanning the list of encrypted one-time keys looking for the copy that was encrypted with their Public Key.  This copy is then decrypted with the Private key to recover the one-time key which then can be used to do the actual decrypting.  The Signing/Verification actions that occur during an encrypt&sign and decrypt&verify are covered in Step 10 below and occur prior to the encryption itself and after the corresponding decrypting of the data.     Step 9: Using your Default Public Key to save a backup, encrypted, decipherable copy of all your e-mail messages There's something you need to know right away about PGP encryption: once you encrypt a message using the Public Key of the person to whom you're sending it, you won't be able subsequently to decrypt it and read it yourself since you don't have your correspondent's Private Key.  Most of the time this doesn't matter because you may not need to keep a copy of every message you sent.  But sometimes (maybe often, if you consider it necessary) you want to keep your own encrypted copy of a message for the record and you need to be able to decrypt it, if and when you want to read it at a later date.  The best thing to do is tell PGP to encrypt all your messages using your correspondent's Public Key as well as one of your own Public Keys (called the Default Public Key).  Here's how you do this: Open PGPkeys by selecting Current Window/ Sign.  The message is fed into a routine called a HASH Function (a function that converts one string of characters into a fixed length string). You will be prompted to enter your Passphrase (unless you have selected the option for PGP to recall your Passphrase from what's called the "cache"--which is not a good idea unless you know what you're doing (see Step 14), so for the time being we'll assume that you will be prompted to enter your Passphrase).  In Step 14 you'll learn how to extend the time that your Passphrase is kept in the cache, along with warnings about how you should clear the cache when you leave your computer unattended for any period of time. Go ahead and type your Passphrase and hit OK. That's all there is to signing your unencrypted e-mails.  Unfortunately, signing your unencrypted mail does not, in and of itself, reliably guarantee to the receiver of your note that you are who you say you are, so you should have your Public Key signed by at least one other trusted person who trusts you and integrity within the context of the Web of Trust. This signing links your "real world"/"Offline" identity with your "Electronic"/"Online" persona.  So long as all messages are signed with the same key, that (even in the absence of any other signatures) is enough "proof" of electronic identity. The signing is only needed if you need to do the real world linking.  The Signing of an Email serves an additional purpose beyond showing that the message was written by the owner of the key, namely that the message has not been altered between the time the owner signed it and the time you verify the signature.  So long as the Signature verifies, you know that the message has not been altered.  The verification also shows when the message was signed; thus it shows the latest time that it could have been written. This is only in theory since there is no way to prove the validity of the time stamp.  In other words: Was the user's computer set to the correct time and what time zone were they in?  When the proof of the accuracy of the time of creation is important, there needs to be some external function applied (such as a Digital Notary signing the message or Digital Signature).  Ways in which this can be done is beyond the scope of this tutorial.  The actual signing process works as follows: The message is fed into a routine called a HASH Function (a function that converts one string of characters into another), that produces a string that represents the contents of the message (called a Message Digest).  Any change in the formatting of the message (such as moving a letter/word between the end of one line to the start of the next) is enough to create a different string.  Thus, altering the actual contents and not just its formatting will also generate a different Message Digest. The Message Digest (along with the time stamp and some other control information) is then encrypted with the Sender's Private Key to create the Digital Signature which is placed after the message text.  In an encrypt&sign operation, it is this signed text not just the message which is encrypted. Upon receipt (or after decrypting, if the message is not clear signed but was encrypted&signed), the Digital Signature is then decrypted with the recipient's Public Key (remember that Encryption with a Private Key allows Decrypting with the corresponding Public Key) to recover the Message Digest. The message itself is then fed through the Hash Function to produce another Message Digest. If the two Message Digests match, this proves not only that the message has not been altered but that it was signed by the Key Owner (otherwise the decrypt of the Signature would not have recovered the correct Message Digest and control information to compare with the newly created copy). Warning: After you do the Verify Step, the message will be altered to contain a block of text that shows the status of the verify operation. You will be offered the chance to replace the received signed (or encrypted and signed) copy with the verified copy.  Do NOT do this replace if you want to be able to show that the text was not altered AFTER receipt and verification.  Leaving it in its (Encrypted and) Signed/Un-Verified form allows you to Re-verify it anytime you need to.   Step 11: Weaving the Web of Trust--Signing someone else's Public Key Here is a comment from a respected member of the Public Key Encryption community (Nick Andriash) in response to a request he received to sign a cyberfriend's Public Key.  "With respect to signing each other's Public Keys," Nick replied, "I have already done so with a non-exportable signature, because we have been in constant communication, and I obtained your Public Key from your web site; I am confident enough in knowing the messages are coming from the same person at the same address...  I just don't know who that person is, and that is why I cannot sign your Public Key with an exportable signature, where it will always travel with the Public Key.  For that, I insist on face to face meetings, along with an exchange of photo ID, etc., as this is the people who have signed my Key, I have met personally, and that is as it should always be, unless we are introduced to each other by a Trusted Introducer whose signature appears on both our Public Keys."     When you sign someone else's Public Key, you are verifying that it belongs to the person who claims to own it.  You are stating that you know this individual and that the key really belongs to him or her.  As it states in the PGP dialog box for signing a key: "By signing the selected user ID(s), you are certifying based on your own direct first-hand knowledge that the key(s) and attached user ID(s) actually belong to the identified user(s)."  Then, before signing, you're asked to remember if you received the key in a secure manner (you know where it came from) or if you have verified the fingerprint with the owner.  The dialog box includes the owner's fingerprint so you could, if you wanted to, go over the fingerprint with the owner in person ideally, or at the very least over the phone, just to make sure everything's kosher.     In this way, you are able to give a key greater authenticity.  Under normal circumstances, you may think it unnecessary to validate someone else's key in this way.  You might even think it seems like overkill.  But suppose someone were to masquerade as someone else (say, as you) and put a Public Key in that person's (or your) name on an internationally available certificate server.  Then suppose that other people were to encrypt messages using that Public Key, thinking the message could be decrypted and read only by the person they THINK they're sending it to (say, you).  All the masquerader has to do now is intercept those messages and easily decrypt them because the masquerader has the Passphrase and corresponding Private Key.   PGPtray icon  PGPkeys in the pop up menu. In the list of keys in the PGPkeys window, right click on the In the pop up menu, select the item Sign....  Immediately PGP presents a dialog box which lists the key you wish to sign, along with its fingerprint (a long string of hexadecimal characters).  The text in the dialog box advises you to ensure that the key you are about to sign was given to you in a secure manner, and if you're not absolutely sure, you should verify the fingerprint with the owner of the Public Key.  At the very least, unless you are quite sure the key belongs to the person who owns it, you should phone the individual and have them repeat to you the characters of the fingerprint by way of validation. You'll notice a small check box next to " Allow signature to be exported" and you are advised that " others may rely upon your signature." DON'T check this box if all you want to do is add a non-exportable signature to the Public Key. Click on OK to complete the non-exportable signing of the Public Key. Then as an Step 14: Useful PGP Options you should know about We'll be adding explanations for more PGP Options over the next few weeks.  For now, here is an explanation of how you can tweak the time frame of the cache that PGP uses to remember your Passphrase.  You'll also find out here how to Purge your Passphrase cache, a simple task which is very important to remember to do when you leave your computer unattended.  Finally, for your convenience, we've added a table listing the hotkeys available in PGP.     As mentioned above in Step 8, every time PGP needs access to the Private Key (to Decrypt an Encrypted Message or Sign an Outgoing Message or someone's Public Key) the corresponding Passphrase will need to be re-entered.  By default, PGP will remember-- cache-- your Passphrase for two minutes so that you do not have to re-enter it if needed more than once within this time frame.  A cache (which means "hidden" or "hiding place" in French) is a small area on your disk used by the computer to store data it needs to access quickly and frequently.  PGP's Passphrase caches are used to save you time by temporarily holding your Passphrases (you may have more than one) after you've typed them a first time in a session at the computer.  Unfortunately, two minutes is too short a time frame for most users, with the result that it's usually necessary to re-enter the Passphrase every time.  This is no problem if your Passphrase is short and easy to enter; but a short, simple Passphrase defeats the purpose of PGP which encourages the use of suitably large and complex Passphrases in order to foil attempts at cracking them, as explained above in Step 3 above. Altering the time that PGP keeps your Passphrase in the cache .  This will save you having to repeatedly re-enter your Passphrase every time you need access to the Private Key.  Just remember, before you leave your machine unattended, to tell PGP to forget the Passphrase [empty the Cache].  Here are the simple steps to extend the time that PGP keeps your Passphrase in the cache: Click on the

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